Denis V. Makarov and Leonid E. Kon’kov
Long-range propagation of sound pulses in the deep ocean is considered. A new method for the estimation of the pulse angular spectrum is presented. The method is based on the Husimi trans- form of a wave field and can be realized with a short vertical array of nondirectional hydrophones. As a result, one obtains a diagram of the arrival pattern in the time–angle plane. The method is applied to a model of the underwater sound channel in the Sea of Japan. Special attention is paid to sound scattering on a cold synoptic eddy along the waveguide. It is shown that the synoptic eddy leads to a splitting of the individual ray’s arrivals into clusters with close angles and times. The random sound-speed perturbation induced by internal waves blurs these clusters into a fuzzy background and simultaneously broaden the angular spectrum of pulses. Nevertheless, it is found that the latter effect is relatively weak for short vertical arrays. In particular, it is shown that increasing the array length from 10 to 30 m results in the separation of the arrivals with opposite angles.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 2023, 11, 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010029